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According to the characteristics and requirements of food cold storage buildings, food cold storage is mainly used for food freezing, processing and refrigeration. It maintains a certain indoor low temperature through artificial refrigeration. The wall, floor and flat roof of the food cold storage are covered with a certain thickness of thermal insulation materials to reduce the incoming heat from the outside. In order to reduce the radiation energy absorbed by the sun, the exterior wall surface of the cold storage is generally painted white or light color. Therefore, the freezer building is different from the general industrial and civil buildings, and has its unique structure.
The building of food cold storage shall prevent the diffusion of water vapor and the infiltration of air. When the air of the outdoor empty food cold storage invades, it not only increases the cold consumption of the cold storage, but also brings water into the warehouse. The condensation of water causes the building structure, especially the heat insulation structure, to be damaged by moisture and freezing. Therefore, a moisture-proof and heat insulation layer should be set to make the cold storage building have good sealing and moisture-proof and steam isolation performance.
The foundation of food cold storage is affected by low temperature, and the water in soil is easy to be frozen. Due to the volume expansion after soil freezing, the ground will be broken and the whole building structure will be deformed, which will make the cold storage unusable. Therefore, in addition to effective thermal insulation layer, the floor of low-temperature cold storage must also be treated under the thermal insulation layer to prevent soil freezing.
A large number of goods shall be stacked on the floor of the food cold storage, and various loading, unloading and transportation machinery and equipment shall be passed. Refrigeration equipment or pipes are also set on the flat top. Therefore, its structure should be firm and have large bearing capacity.
In low temperature environment, especially in the process of periodic freezing and thawing cycle, the building structure of food cold storage is easy to be damaged. Therefore, the building materials of the cold storage and the structure of each part of the cold storage should have sufficient frost resistance.
Generally speaking, the quality of cold storage buildings is guaranteed by their strict thermal insulation, sealing, firmness and frost resistance.
Ensure the quality of buildings.
II. Classification of food cold storage
(I) by capacity and scale of cold storage
At present, the capacity division of food freezer is not unified, which is generally divided into large, medium and small food freezers. The refrigerating capacity of large cold storage is more than 10000t; The refrigerating capacity of medium-sized cold storage is 1000 ~ 10000t; The refrigerating capacity of small cold storage is less than 1000t.
(II) according to the design temperature of refrigeration
It is divided into four categories: high temperature, medium temperature, low temperature and ultra-low temperature. ① The cold storage design temperature of general food cold storage and high-temperature cold storage is - 2 ℃ to + 8 ℃; ② The refrigeration design temperature of medium temperature cold storage is - 10 ℃ to - 23 ℃; ③ Low temperature, generally - 23 ℃ to 30 ℃; ④ The temperature of ultra-low speed freezer is generally - 30 ℃ to - 80 ℃.
(III) classification according to warehouse structure
1. Civil food cold storage
This is a kind of freezer with more buildings at present, which can be built into single-layer or multi-layer. The main body of food cold storage buildings is generally reinforced concrete frame structure or brick concrete structure. The enclosure structure of civil cold storage is a heavy structure with large thermal inertia. The diurnal fluctuation of outdoor air temperature and the diurnal temperature fluctuation caused by solar radiation on the outer surface of the enclosure structure attenuate greatly in the enclosure structure. Therefore, the temperature fluctuation on the inner surface of the enclosure structure is small and the storage temperature is easy to be stable.
2. Combined plate food cold storage
The cold storage is in the form of a single layer, the storage plate is an assembly structure of light prefabricated heat insulation plate with steel frame, and its bearing components are mostly made of thin-walled steel. The inner and outer panels of the storeboard are made of coloured steel sheets (the substrate is galvanized steel sheet), and the core material of the storeboard is foamed rigid polyurethane or sticker polystyrene foam board. Except for the ground, all components are prefabricated in complete sets in professional factories according to unified standards and assembled on site, so the construction progress is fast and the construction period is short.
3. Soil covered food cold storage
It is also called Earth kiln cave cold storage. The cave body is mostly arch structure, including single cave type and continuous arch form. Generally, it is masonry, and the Loess covering layer with a certain thickness is used as the thermal insulation layer. As a low-temperature soil covered cold storage, the foundation of the tunnel body shall be located on the sand and stone layer or bedrock that is not easy to frost heave. Because it has the advantages of local conditions, local materials, simple construction, low cost and durability, it has been greatly developed in Northwest China.
4. Cave food cold storage
It is generally built in the rock stratum with relatively hard stone and good integrity. The inner side of the tunnel body is generally treated with lining or shotcrete anchor. The rock stratum coverage thickness of the tunnel body is generally not less than 20m.